7. A total of 237 suspected poisoning incidents were referred to the WIIS Scotland throughout 2011 (Figure 1). Four incidents were excluded leaving 233 incidents accepted for subsequent investigation.
8. The cause of death or illness was established in 129 incidents. 25 of these incidents involved pesticides and were assigned to an appropriate WIIS category. In the remaining 104 incidents, death of the animal was concluded to be due to starvation (28), disease (7), trauma (68) and ethylene glycol (1).
9. One incident was attributed to the approved use of pesticides. Three incidents were categorised as misuse. Two involved dogs and the other involved cattle. In a further 5 incidents, it was not possible to identify a specific source of the pesticide residues detected and the cause of each incident was categorised as unspecified use. Sixteen incidents were categorised as abuse. Further details of these poisoning incidents are provided in the Categorised Incidents section. A breakdown of all 233 incidents is presented in Tables 1-3.
Table 1: Number of incidents investigated in 2011
Sample classificationa Incidents Investigated Incidents involving pesticidesb Categorised incidentsc Incidents with other known cause of death or illness Vertebrate wildlife 177 84 17 100 Livestock 1 1 1 0 Companion animals 35 6 5 2 Honey bees 5 0 0 2 Bait, chemical or paraphernalia 15 3 2 Not applicable TOTAL 233 94 25 104 a Where single incidents involved submission of several sample types – the sample was simply classified by the first named specimen.
b All incidents including those involving veterinary medicines and ethylene glycol.
c Incidents involving ethylene glycol and veterinary drugs only were not assigned to a WIIS category.
A list of the pesticides and other chemicals detected during 2011 is presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Identity and frequency of pesticides detected in incidents and associated sample types
Chemical Number of positive incidents Sample typea aldicarb 3 bait, buzzard, cat aldicarb sulfoxideb 3 bait, buzzard, cat bendiocarb 2 raven, red kite brodifacoum 26 buzzard, dog, fox, red kite, sea eagle, sparrowhawk, tawny owl bromadiolone 61 bait, barn owl, buzzard, dog, fox, golden eagle, kestrel, otter, peregrine falcon, rabbit, red kite, sparrowhawk, tawny owl carbofuran 9 buzzard, chemical, golden eagle, raven, red kite, sparrowhawk chloralose 2 bait, buzzard, crow, paraphernalia, red kite coumatetralyl 4 fox, peregrine falcon, tawny owl diazinon 1 chemical difenacoum 34 buzzard, fox, red kite, sea eagle, sparrowhawk dimetridazole 1 chemical ethylene glycol 1 cat metaldehyde 1 cattle methiocarb 1 dog novocaine 1 chemical oxytetracycline 1 chemical penicillin G 1 chemical strychnine 1 bait, peregrine falcon a An individual incident may have involved submission of multiple sample types and/or detection of more than one pesticide.
b Aldicarb sulfoxide is a metabolite of aldicarb
Table 3 contains details of the variety and number of specimens tested by SASA Pesticides Wildlife Branch and the number where pesticide residues were detected. soil, debris 49 (26) Total number of specimens tested 365 (137)